Integrated missions: the challenge of planning and command
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- Forsvarets høgskole 
Civil-Military Integration is a growing trend in modern peace operations. Most leading nations and international organisations are developing integrated structures at strategic levels and have started to change their doctrines to include a broader spectrum of tools disposable to the national as well as the international community. The UN has established and is implementing their concept of Integrated Missions which aims to link the long term development and short term peacekeeping effort into their peace-building strategy. This thesis is analysing this concept, focusing on the planning and structuring of Integrated Missions and exploring what consequences it will have to the military component. First the thesis reviews some of the important historical developments toward civil-military integration and multi-dimensional UN peacekeeping during the 1990s. The Military Force Commander became a military adviser to a political leader, and the UN operations became more civil in form and function and the military’s task portfolio widened to include an increasingly number of non-military tasks. Further the thesis is establishing a theoretical model of an integrated mission in a wider peace building context involving the humanitarian sector, the UN country team and the non-governmental organisations. Planning and structure of a mission is focused. This model is then brought to the practical level by doing a single case study of the ongoing UN Mission in Sudan, focusing on the planning, the establishment and structure as mandated in Security Resolution 1590. This mission seems to be well integrated already from the beginning involving the UN Country Team in the strategy and planning. The mission has a unified plan coordinated with the humanitarian work plan for Sudan. The concept of Integrated Mission implies that the military component must share their planning,information, staff and logistics with the civilian sector in the operations. The UN is focusing on implementation of the concept in their future missions, establishing more integrated structures at mission HQ level and more integrated processes at all levels. The military must provide more expertise in form of intelligence and joint level staff experiences in order to establish the new integrated structures. Further the humanitarian sector of the UN (OCHA) and the peacekeeping sector (DPKO) seem to focus on coordination of their policy documents and de-confliction of roles especially when it comes to the military involvement in humanitarian efforts. Integration is much about understanding roles; avoiding duplication of effort and trying to bring synergies in a comprehensive strategy.