Oil offloading solutions for the Pechora sea exemplified by the Prirazlomnoye field
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There are many prospective areas to develop in Arctic and every considered project is unique. Solutions for one oil or gas field might not be appropriate for another. Especially in terms of development of oil and gas fields in the Arctic Region many issues still remain due to lack of experience and incredible harsh conditions as well as safety aspects and high-priced technological solutions. The Prirazlomnoye field is the pilot Russian Arctic project operated by company Gazprom Neft Shelf. The project covers the process of oil offloading from platform to tankers. There are some tasks to be solved in order to carry out operations safely, economically sound and professionally. Offloading represents a complex of arrangements that have to be done at appropriate time and with certain accuracy, especially in winter. Challenges that we will pay attention to are weather uncertainties, leading to waste of operation time, ice ridge formation in front of the wall of the platform in winter periods and ice drifting past the platform. Ice ridges can affect the offloading process and cargo operations. Chapter 1 provides a general description of the Prirazlomnoye field. Chapter 2 contains a brief overview of the Pechora Sea including ice conditions, wave conditions, wind, currents and tidal fluctuations. Chapter 3 contains justification of the chosen kind of oil offloading from the field. The offloading system called CUPON and tankers used for oil transportation are discussed in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 is dedicated to the offloading operation and different scenarios of offloading according to the season of year. It identifies possible threats, risks associated with the operation and gives a comprehensive understanding of tanker movements in the sea. In Chapter 6 offloading forecast and its importance will be discussed. In Chapter 7 requirements for offloading concepts and possible offloading concepts for the Pechora Sea fields will be covered. Resistance of tankers in ice during offloading is calculated in Chapter 8. Chapter 9 is devoted to safety of the offloading operations. In this chapter risk analysis and mitigation measures are carried out helping us to identify conditions for secure and feasible operations. Chapter 10 will cover the cost of offloading delays that give potential economic effect on the early stage of risk identification.
Master's thesis in Offshore technology