Leveraging sensing-based interaction for supporting reflection at work: the case of crisis training
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Continuous training for preparedness empowers crisis workers (e.g. firefighters, paramedics) to achieve better performance and commitment in providing help to the communities struck by a nature or human-caused crisis. To achieve these goals the body of research in reflective learning provides theoretical tools to guide data-driven, collaborative reflection on work experience towards changes in behaviour. ICT support for reflective learning facilitates the process by providing technologies for capturing work experience, visualising discrepancies as reflection triggers; and by supporting sharing of learning outcomes. Yet current ICT tools do not consider the very specific, situated nature of crisis work. While data capturing tools lack interaction paradigms suitable for being used during work, visualisation tools struggle in providing the user with the context information needed to ground reflection on past work experiences and to achieve learning outcomes that are structured to be easily shared among colleagues. The research in this thesis investigates how theory in the field of embodied and sensing-based interaction can inform the design of computer interfaces to better assist reflection practice in the case of crisis training. This thesis explores how conceptual tools from reflective learning theory can be implemented in technology tools to make the capture of work experience lightweight and pervasive, and interaction with reflection-useful information tangible, situated and playful. The work is grounded on design science methodology. Six field studies have been performed during large physical simulations of crisis work. Exploratory studies drove eight design iterations of sensing-based interfaces. Software and hardware rapid prototyping techniques, open source and digital manufacturing tools have been largely employed. Prototypes were eventually returned to the field and tested against acceptance, usability and impact on learning. Results from evaluations were used to validate existing theories and for the development of new constructs. Commercial exploitation of the research outcomes are being discussed. The resulting contributions add new knowledge to guide the design of novel sensingbased interfaces to support continuous training of crisis workers. To this end, it is demonstrated how conceptual tools from reflective learning theory can be mapped to technology to support the capture, re-creation and generation of work experience. Seven challenges to drive the design of experience-capturing tools are provided. The challenges shed light on what information is relevant and how to capture relevant information and they were explored with the production of prototypes of wearable data capturing tools. Further, the thesis contributes with novel techniques derived from sensing-based interaction. The paradigms have been implemented in embodied user interfaces to reduce distraction while capturing experience at work, to allow for re-creating past experience situated in a physical context that provides prompts for reflection; and to allow generating engaging and collaborative work experience by means of serious games. Building prototypes of such user interfaces requires a wide range of competencies in software and hardware engineering. Lessons learnt from the author’s experience provide knowledge for the creation of designer’s tools to ease rapid prototyping of sensing-based interfaces.
Has partsPaper 1: Mora, Simone; Boron, Alessandro; Divitini, Monica. CroMAR: Mobile augmented reality for supporting reflection on crowd management. International Journal of Mobile Human Computer Interaction 2012 ;Volum 4.(2) s. 88-101 Is not included due to copyright avaialable at http://dx.doi.org/10.4018/jmhci.2012040107
Paper 2: Mora, Simone; Divitini, Monica. Supporting Debriefing with Sensor Data: A Reflective Approach to Crisis Training. I: Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management in Mediterranean Countries. Springer 2014, Is not included due to copyright avialable at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-11818-5_7
Paper 3: Mora, Simone; Divitini, Monica. WATCHiT: a modular and wearable tool for data collection in crisis management and training. I: Ambient Intelligence s. 274-289 .The final publication is available at Springer via http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-14112-1_22
Paper 4: Di Loreto, Ines; Mora, Simone; Divitini, Monica. Don’t Panic: Enhancing Soft Skills for Civil Protection Workers. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 2012 ;Volum 7528. s. 1-12, Is not included due to copyright available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-33687-4_1
Paper 5: Mora, S., Di Loreto, I., & Divitini, M. The interactive-token approach to board games
Paper 6: Müller, Lars; Divitini, Monica; Mora, Simone; Rivera-Pelayo, Verónica; Stork, Wilhelm. Context Becomes Content: Sensor Data for Computer-Supported Reflective Learning. IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies 2015 ;Volum 8.(1) s. 111-123 http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TLT.2014.2377732 (c) 2015 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other users, including reprinting/ republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted components of this work in other works.
Paper 7: Mora, Simone; Farshchian, Babak A.. A Unified Architecture for Supporting Direct Tag-Based and Indirect Network-Based Resource Discovery. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 2010 Is not included due to copyright available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-16917-5_20