Do they get what they want? : an analysis of cost and biodiversity effectiveness of voluntary versus government initiated forest conservation in Norway 2005-2013
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- Master's theses (HH) 
The study analyzes cost and utility-cost effective use of government funds for voluntary conservation and government initiated conservation of forest in Norway from 2005 to 2013, to better understand bias in voluntary conservation when compared to government initiated conservation of forested areas. This is accomplished by estimating a mean opportunity cost for a decare of productive forest for the counties included in the analysis, and to compute solutions to a optimization problem, where the different criteria of effectiveness were chosen, to 1) evaluate if and how the two conservation policies differ, and 2) determine the bias of the effectiveness criteria, using cost effective criteria, and three utility-cost effectiveness criteria, targeting: old-growth forest, areas under harvesting pressure, and areas with old-growth forest not under pressure from harvest. Using contemporary available data for: prices, forest and forest distribution, and conservation. The results indicate that counties where there is perceived availability of forest for harvesting, that for different reasons does not come under pressure for harvesting, were not included in the voluntary conservation scheme. And, an indication that voluntary conservation does not include counties with higher ratio of old-forest. While showing no specific bias towards any of the cost- or utility-cost effectiveness criteria, for either form of conservation.