With the “Norwegian Model” as a goal?: A Comparative Analysis of the Petroleum Legislation in Angola and the Norwegian Petroleum Experience to Fight the “Resource Curse” and Promote Accountability and Development
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There is a wide consensus among academics today that developing countries rich on natural resources are slower to develop, than their non-resource rich counterparts. There are many explanations for this, but one that is often used is the theory of the “resource curse”. Like many other natural abundant developing countries, Angola suffers from poor institutional framework, slow economic development, lack of human rights and corruption. In contrast to this, Norway’s management of its resources has been used as a model for many developing petro-states today because of its good management and governance results. The Norwegian government’s Oil for Development program provides help to developing nations that suffer from problems with their management of natural minerals. This program provides information and technical help to those countries. In a report from the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation, it states that the biggest achievement in Angola was the development of the new petroleum activities law 10/04 in 2004. By analyzing the General Activities Law 13/78 from 1978 (before Norwegian influence) and the new law from 2004 (after Norwegian influence), this thesis provides a creditable framework for evaluating the changes made from the Norwegian influence. The thesis explains the difference in institutional frameworks in Angola and Norway, and by setting the Norwegian experience as a standard, the dissertation will explain what changes have been made, why Angola has had a hard time managing its petroleum wealth and promoting development, and how corruption flourishes in the country. This paper also seeks to explain why Norway has avoided the resource curse, and why the “Norwegian model” has been used as an ideal for natural resource rich countries today. The paper emphasizes the importance of a nation’s history and to see what other actors have played a part in the development of Angola. In the end, I wish to see if these changes are just implemented on paper, or are a part of real life. With this I expect to provide a good framework for future research on this topic, and to provide a new way of analyzing the resource-cursed Angola.