Swimming in a slurry of schemes: making sense of aquaculture standards and certification schemes
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Growth in the number of certification schemes in the aquaculture industry has been attributed to several factors. The schemes contribute to improved traceability of products, provide healthier stocks, and provide more infor-mation to customers’ decision-making efforts. There is a wide range of certification schemes and standards available, addressing food safety, environmental impact, animal welfare, and worker conditions, to name a few. The abundance of certification schemes has resulted in concerns about consumers becoming confused with the number of labels and that certification schemes themselves may become a barrier to trade. This paper examines 5 major certification schemes in the aquaculture sector and categorizes them according to their purpose, proprietor-ship, and process. We investigate what has caused this wave of attention to be given to such a diverse range of issues, exploring how the diversity of these certifications is rooted in their inception and the areas they address.