Multiscale daltonization in the gradient domain
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Original versionJournal of Perceptual Imaging. 2018, 1 (1), 010503-1-010503-12. 10.2352/J.Percept.Imaging.2018.1.1.010503
We propose a daltonization method that enhances chromatic edges and contrast for color-deficient people by optimizing the gradient of an image. We rotate and scale the error gradient between the original and its simulation in the color space into the direction of optimal visibility that is orthogonal to both the main direction of information loss and the direction of lightness. Then, we reintegrate the daltonized image version from the modified gradient through an iterative diffusion process. Moreover, we include multiscaling to guarantee optimal daltonization on different scales of the image. Also, we provide an interface for data attachment modules designed to maintain naturalness of memory colors like neutral colors. We evaluate and compare our proposed method to other top-performing daltonization methods in behavioral and psychometric experiments. A visual-search experiment assessing performance of the attentional mechanism of the human visual system before and after daltonization measures the greatest improvement in accuracy for our proposed method compared to the original and all investigated daltonization methods. It also reveals optimal results for both natural and Ishihara images among both protan and deutan color-deficient observers. Furthermore, we can deduce from the results of a pairwise preference evaluation that our proposed method is preferred highest amongst all color-deficient people in total. Our proposed method is also ranked among the most preferred daltonization methods for both protan and deutan color-deficient observers individually.