Withdrawal of pairs of threaded rods with small edge distances and spacings
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Original versionEuropean Journal of Wood and Wood Products. 2018, 76 (1), 31-42. 10.1007/s00107-016-1146-7
An experimental investigation on withdrawal of pairs of screwed-in threaded rods embedded in glued-laminated timber elements is presented in this paper. Specimens with varying angles between the rod axis and the grain direction (α = 15°, 30°, 60°, 90°) and 2 different configurations with respect to edge distances and spacings were tested. The diameter and the embedment length of the rods were 20 and 450 mm, respectively. The threaded rods were embedded in a row perpendicular to the plain of the grain. The edge distances and spacings were smaller than the minimum requirements according to Eurocode 5. The withdrawal capacity of pairs of rods was compared to the withdrawal capacity of single rods and the effective number, n ef , was found to be in the range 1.72–1.94, despite the small edge distances and spacings. Based on the experimental results obtained, a simple approximating expression was derived for n ef . An analytical model based on Volkersen theory with an idealized bi-linear constitutive relationship was used to estimate the withdrawal capacity and stiffness. The analytical estimations were in good agreement with the experimental results. Finally, the withdrawal stiffness was estimated by use of finite element simulations. The numerical estimations for the withdrawal stiffness were also in good agreement with the experimental results.