Next Generation Visualization and Interaction Tool in Petroleum Drilling
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Intelligent Drilling is a response to todays complex petroleum drilling operations. The strategy entails more automation, changed work procedures and roles, improved measurement and control data and more integrated and optimized planning procedures. The increased amount of available data combined with increasingly narrower parameter margins introduce a need for advanced visualization methods and tools. The objectives are to fully understand the consequences of our actions and to react as quickly as possible to changed conditions. The methods and tools presented in this thesis aim to achieve these goals.A domain model of a subset of the drilling operations suitable for visualization purposes was created using an informal literature study. A set of User Interaction Design (UID) principles for designing mission-critical systems was assembled by combining the knowledge of the domain model with established UID principles from literature. Based on the domain model, a simulation model was created to support time- and depth-based simulation of drilling operations and events. This simulation model uses a discrete-event model for communicating events for advancing time and depth, starting stuck pipe and kick behavior, display and warning of stuck pipe and kick events and display of wellbore information and risks for specified depth intervals.A prototype visualization tool that implements the simulation and event model was constructed using the engineering research method. The tool displays the entire drilling parameter value lifecycle including roadmap, measured sensor values and user-editable set points in an integrated view. The tool provides an integration of parameter data that was previously scattered and gives the user a coherent view that allows for better parameter optimization. The tool features an unobtrusive early warning alarm system that highlights abnormal parameter values and predicts critical events.Finally, an evaluation of the visualization tool was conducted using an expert heuristic review of the user interface, an assertion that the tool was suitable for the drilling scenarios and a simulation of the drilling process using generated parameter values and trends, manually scheduled stuck pipe and kick events and an example set of information and risks from a trip risk log. The assertion and simulation concluded that the tool provided complete coverage of the scenarios and accurately modeled the subset of the drilling process. The expert heuristic review concluded that the visualization method presented was useful, although the interaction method of adjusting the set points was not likely to be of use. The visualization method was also believed to be more useful for a data logging user role, such as that of the mud logger.