Security in a Service-Oriented Architecture
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In a service-oriented architecture (SOA), parts of software applications are made available as services. These services can be combined across multiple applications, technologies, and organizations. As a result, functionality can be more easily reused, and new business processes can be assembled at a low cost. However, as more functionality is exposed outside of the traditional boundaries of applications, new approaches to security are needed. While SOA shares many of the security threats of traditional systems, the countermeasures to some of these threats may differ. Most notably, eavesdropping, data tampering, and replay attacks must be countered on the message level in a complex SOA environment. In addition, the open and distributed nature of SOA leads to new ways of handling authentication, authorization, logging, and monitoring. Web Services are the most popular way of realizing SOA in practice, and make use of a set of standards such as WS-Security, XML Encryption, XML Signature, and SAML for handling these new security approaches. Guidelines exist for development of secure software systems, and provide recommendations for things to do or to avoid. In this thesis, I use my findings with regard to security challenges, threats, and countermeasures to create a set of security guidelines that should be applied during requirements engineering and design of a SOA. Practical use of these guidelines is demonstrated by applying them during development of a SOA-based system. This system imports personal data into multiple administrative systems managed by UNINETT FAS, and is designed using Web Services and XML-based security standards. Through this practical demonstration, I show that my guidelines can be used as a reference for making appropriate security decisions during development of a SOA.