Transcriptional development of phospholipid and lipoprotein metabolism in different intestinal regions of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fry
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Background It has been suggested that the high phospholipid (PL) requirement in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fry is due to insufficient intestinal de-novo synthesis causing low lipoprotein (LP) production and reduced transport capacity of dietary lipids. However, in-depth ontogenetic analysis of intestinal PL and LP synthesis with the development of salmon has yet to be performed. Therefore, in this paper we used RNA-Seq technology to investigate the expression of genes involved in PL synthesis and LP formation throughout early developmental stages and associate insufficient expression of synthesis pathways in salmon fry with its higher dietary PL requirement. There was a special focus on the understanding homologous genes, especially those from salmonid-specific fourth vertebrate whole-genome duplication (Ss4R), and their contribution to salmonid specific features of regulation of PL metabolic pathways. Salmon fry were sampled at 0.16 g (1 day before first-feeding), 2.5 and 10 g stages of development and transcriptomic analysis was applied separately on stomach, pyloric caeca and hindgut of the fish. Results In general, we found up-regulated pathways involved in synthesis of phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho), phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn), and LP in pyloric caeca of salmon between 0.16 and 10 g. Thirteen differentially expressed genes (q < 0.05) in these pathways were highly up-regulated in 2.5 g salmon compared to 0.16 g, while only five more differentially expressed (q < 0.05) genes were found when the fish grew up to 10 g. Different homologous genes were found dominating in stomach, pyloric caeca and hindgut. However, the expression of dominating genes in pathways of PL and LP synthesis were much higher in pyloric caeca than stomach and hindgut. Salmon-specific homologous genes (Ss4R) had similar expression during development, while other homologs had more diverged expression. Conclusions The up-regulation of the de-novo PtdCho and PtdEtn pathways confirm that salmon have decreasing requirement for dietary PL as the fish develops. The similar expressions between Ss4R homologous genes suggest that the functional divergence of these genes was incomplete compared to homologs derived from other genome duplication. The results of the present study have provided new information on the molecular mechanisms of phospholipid synthesis and lipoprotein formation in fish.