How to quantify biodiversity footprints of consumption? A review of multi-regional input–output analysis and life cycle assessment
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Reducing direct pressures on biodiversity will only be possible once the consumption drivers behind them are identified. Target 4 of the Convention on Biological Diversity highlights the importance of moving towards sustainable patterns of production and consumption. However, linking consumption patterns to impacts on biodiversity is a complex task, especially in today's globalized world. Here, we review how environmentally extended multi-regional input–output analysis and life cycle assessment have been used to analyze the impacts of consumption on biodiversity, as well as the main challenges in doing so. Finally we discuss how these methods can provide new indicators to measure the progress towards policy goals.