Influence of processing on stability, microstructure and thermoelectric properties of Ca3Co4-xO9+δ
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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OriginalversjonJournal of the European Ceramic Society. 2018, 38 1592-1599. 10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2017.11.011
Due to high figure of merit, Ca3Co4-xO9+δ (CCO) has potential as p-type material for high-temperature thermoelectrics. Here, the influence of processing including solid state sintering, spark plasma sintering and post-calcination on stability, microstructure and thermoelectric properties is reported. By a new post-calcination approach, single-phase materials were obtained from precursors to final dense ceramics in one step. The highest zT of 0.11 was recorded at 800 °C for CCO with 98 and 72 % relative densities. In situ high-temperature X-ray diffraction in air and oxygen revealed a higher stability of CCO in oxygen ( ̴ 970 °C) than in air ( ̴ 930 °C), with formation of Ca3Co2O6 which also showed high stability in oxygen, even at 1125 °C. Since achievement of phase pure high density CCO by post-calcination method in air is challenging, the phase stability of CCO in oxygen is important for understanding and further improvement of the method.