Reference limits for chromogranin A, CYFRA 21-1, CA 125, CA 19-9 and carcinoembryonic antigen in patients with chronic kidney disease
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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OriginalversjonInternational Journal of Biological Markers. 2017, 32 (4), e461-e466. 10.5301/ijbm.5000278
Background Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) may have increased plasma concentrations of some tumor markers even when no cancer is present. Previous studies have indicated that plasma concentrations of chromogranin A (CGA), cytokeratin 19 fragments (CYFRA 21-1), cancer antigen 125 (CA 125), cancer antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) are higher in patients with CKD but without cancer, than in healthy individuals, and this can make interpretation of results more complicated. The aim of this study was to establish reference limits for these markers in patients with CKD not receiving dialysis and with no clinical evidence of cancer. Methods We measured plasma concentrations in samples from 131 patients with CKD due to various etiologies and studied the association of tumor marker concentrations with estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and other patient characteristics. Results Estimated reference limits for plasma CA 125, CA 19-9 and CEA were approximately the same as for healthy populations. Serum concentrations of CGA and CYFRA 21-1 correlated strongly with estimated GFR, and GFR-dependent reference limits were estimated. Conclusions GFR-dependent reference limits for CGA and CYFRA 21-1 are reported in order to support interpretation of these markers in patients with CKD.