Pilot Scale Production of Manganese Ferroalloys Using Heat-Treated Mn-Nodules
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionJOM: The Member Journal of TMS. 2017, 69 (2), 358-364. 10.1007/s11837-016-2216-3
Pilot-scale experiments are one way to investigate the process patterns and the reaction mechanisms of processes and raw materials. To understand a process fully, both theoretical considerations as well as small-scale investigations are needed; nevertheless, the complex patterns of chemical reactions and physical phenomena can best be studied in pilot-scale investigations. After studying the chemical and mineralogical properties, the strength and the melting behavior of Mn-nodules, presented in a previous paper, the process behavior of the ore is studied in a pilot scale experiment. The industrial process is simulated in a top-and bottom-electrode furnace operated at about 150 kW. The high-strength, low-melting Mn-nodules produced by Autlan were the main raw material mixed with Comilog ore and some lime. It was shown that the Mn-nodules behave in principle like other commercial Mn-raw materials. The ore will at the border of the high-temperature area produce a liquid in coexistence with a MnO phase. As the ore is reaching the cokebed zone, the ore is already fully reduced. The ore will not be reduced much more in the cokebed area. The slag will be tapped at the composition close to the liquidus composition, as observed for other Mn-raw materials, and thus, also follow the well-known rule of lower MnO content in the slag with higher basicity.