Bayesian Model Averaging for Wind Speed Ensemble Forecasts Using Wind Speed and Direction
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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OriginalversjonWeather and forecasting. 2017, 32 2217-2227. 10.1175/WAF-D-17-0091.1
In this paper, probabilistic wind speed forecasts are constructed based on ensemble numerical weather prediction (NWP) forecasts for both wind speed and wind direction. Including other NWP variables in addition to the one subject to forecasting is common for statistical calibration of deterministic forecasts. However, this practice is rarely seen for ensemble forecasts, probably because of a lack of methods. A Bayesian modeling approach (BMA) is adopted, and a flexible model class based on splines is introduced for the mean model. The spline model allows both wind speed and wind direction to be included nonlinearly. The proposed methodology is tested for forecasting hourly maximum 10-min wind speeds based on ensemble forecasts from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts at 204 locations in Norway for lead times from +12 to +108 h. An improvement in the continuous ranked probability score is seen for approximately 85% of the locations using the proposed method compared to standard BMA based on only wind speed forecasts. For moderate-to-strong wind the improvement is substantial, while for low wind speeds there is generally less or no improvement. On average, the improvement is 5%. The proposed methodology can be extended to include more NWP variables in the calibration and can also be applied to other variables.