Improving Small-Signal Stability of an MMC with CCSC by Control of the Internally Stored Energy
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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The DC-side dynamics of Modular Multilevel Converters (MMCs) can be prone to poorly damped oscillations or stability problems when the second harmonic components of the arm currents are mitigated by a Circulating Current Suppression Controller (CCSC). This paper demonstrates that the source of these oscillations is the uncontrolled interaction of the DC-side current and the internally stored energy of the MMC. Stable operation and improved performance of the MMC control system can be ensured by introducing closed loop control of the energy and the DC-side current. The presented analysis relies on a detailed state-space model of the MMC which can be linearized to achieve a Linear Time Invariant (LTI) model, allowing for eigenvalue analysis of the small-signal dynamics of the MMC. Participation factor analysis indicates the suitability of introducing control of the internal capacitor voltage or the corresponding stored energy. An MMC connected to a DC power source with an equivalent capacitance, and operated with DC voltage droop in the active power flow control, is used as an example for the presented analysis. The developed small-signal models and the improvement in small-signal dynamics are verified by time-domain simulations in comparison to an EMT simulation model of a detailed MMC.