Hydraulic scale modelling and thermodynamics of mass oscillations in closed surge tanks
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionJournal of Hydraulic Research. 2015, 53 (4), 519-524. 10.1080/00221686.2015.1050077
The design and results from a hydraulic scale model of mass oscillations in a hydropower plant with a closed surge tank constructed as an underground rock cavern are presented. The results from the model test of an existing hydropower plant at scale 1:65 are compared with field measurements. The main contributions of this work include (1) an assessment of whether hydraulic models may be applied to evaluate hydropower tunnels with closed surge tanks, (2) a novel approach to scale atmospheric air pressure, and (3) an evaluation of the thermodynamic behaviour in the model and prototype. The hydraulic model is shown to provide an accurate representation of the maximum (first) amplitude, with a relative error of less than 4%. An estimate of the period of the oscillations has a relative error of less than 1%. The model has higher dampening compared with the prototype, resulting in the 20% relative error of the second amplitude. Both the model and prototype reveal approximately adiabatic behaviour of the closed surge tank.