Toxic and essential elements in seafood from Mausund, Norway
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In annual surveys conducted during the period 2012–2015, concentrations of the toxic or essential elements B, Se, Cd, Sn, Cs, Hg, Pb, Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, and As were analyzed in brown meat of edible crab (Cancer pagurus), and filets of cod (Gadus morhua) and halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) in one of the most important commercial crab fishing areas in Norway, at Mausund in Frøya municipality in Sør-Trøndelag, Norway. Concentrations of the elements were analyzed in sediments in 2015. Several salmon farms are located in this area. Samples were extracted by HNO3 and analyzed using Inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Crab, cod, and halibut were caught in a total of five locations. One of these locations was in the proximity of a salmon farm. In edible crabs, the mean ranks were significantly different between two locations only for Sn (p= 0.034). When all data were pooled, the mean ranks statistics showed significant difference between all years for the elements Se (p= <0.001), Cs (p=0.005), Mn (p= 0.002), Zn (p= 0.006), and As (p= 0.001) in edible crab. The study showed elevated levels of Cd in edible crabs in 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015, with the highest levels in 2015. In cod, there were significant differences between locations for the elements B (p=0.003), and Pb (p=0.04), as well as between the years for the elements B, Sn, Cs, Hg, Cr, and As (p = <0.01). The study showed elevated level of Pb in cod in 2013. Halibut showed no significant differences between years or locations for any elements. The Cd-, Hg- and Pb-values of the sediments in this study indicate that local geogenic sources cannot be considered a major cause of high values in local biota.