Low-Temperature Aluminum-Aluminum Wafer Bonding
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionECS Transactions. 2016, 75 (9), 15-24. 10.1149/07509.0015ecst
Aluminum-aluminum thermo-compression wafer bonding is becoming increasingly important in the production of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices. As the chemically highly stable aluminum oxide layer acts as a diffusion barrier between the two aluminum metallization layers, up to now the process has required bonding temperatures of 300°C or more. By using the EVG®580 ComBond® system, in which a surface treatment and subsequent wafer bonding are both performed in a high vacuum cluster, for the first time successful Al-Al wafer bonding was possible at a temperature of 100°C. The bonded interfaces of blank Al wafers and Al wafers with patterned frames were characterized using C-mode scanning acoustic microscopy (C-SAM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) as well as dicing yield and pull tests representative for the bonding strength. The investigations revealed areas of oxide-free, atomic contact at the Al-Al bonded interface.