Detection of simulated leaks from geologically stored CO2 With 13C monitoring
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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OriginalversjonInternational Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control. 2014, 26 61-68. 10.1016/j.ijggc.2014.04.010
Precise methods for the detection of geologically stored CO2within and above soil surfaces are an impor-tant component of the development of carbon capture and storage (CCS) under terrestrial environments.Although CO2leaks are not expected in well-chosen and operated storage sites, monitoring is required bylegislation and any leakage needs to be quantified under the EU Emissions Trading Directive. The objec-tive of the present research was to test if13C stable isotope motoring of soil and canopy atmosphere CO2increases our detection sensitivity for CCS-CO2as compared with concentration monitoring only. A CO2injection experiment was designed to create a horizontal CO2gradient across 6 m × 3 m plots, which weresown with oats in 2011 and 2012. Injected CO2was methane derived and had an isotopic signature of−46.2‰. The CO2concentrations were measured within the soil profile with passive samplers and at sev-eral heights within the crop canopies. The CO2fluxes and their13C signatures were also measured acrossthe experimental plots. In situ monitoring and gas samples measurements were conducted with a cavityring down spectrometer (CRDS). The plots displayed hot spots of injected-CO2leakage clearly detectableby either concentration or isotopic signature measurements. In addition, the13C signature measurementsallow us to detect injected CO2in plot regions where its presence could not be unequivocally ascertainedbased on concentration measurement alone.