Direct numerical simulation of the effective drag in gas‐liquid‐solid systems
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- SINTEF Proceedings 
Due to the increase in the oil prices and the depletion of the oil reserves, Fischer-Tropsch processes for the production of synthetic fuels, methanol synthesis and other gas-to-liquid processes are rapidly gaining interest. These reactions are commonly performed in slurry bubble columns, i.e. three-phase gas-liquid-solid reactors. Although slurry bubble columns are already widely used, challenging scale-up and operational issues are encountered when these reactors are used for the Fisher-Tropsch process. To improve the fundamental understanding of these complex reactors, this work focuses on the effective drag acting on particles and bubbles in dense flows, using Direct Numerical Simulations. We combined the Front Tracking method of Roghair et al. (2013b) and the second order implicit Immersed Boundary method of Deen et al. (2012), resulting in a resulting hybrid Front Tracking Immersed Boundary method that is able to simulate dense three phase flows and quantify the effects. For a system consisting of 2 mm bubbles and 1 mm particles, effective drag closures are developed for both the bubbles and the particles at several phase volume fractions. In future research, the developed methodology will be applied to study the effect of the bubble and particle size and their ratio as well as heat and mass transfer.