Structural and functional characterization of the R-modules in alginate C-5 epimerases AlgE4 and AlgE6 from Azotobacter vinelandii
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionJournal of Biological Chemistry. 2014, 289 (45), 31382-31396. 10.1074/jbc.M114.567008
The bacterium Azotobacter vinelandii produces a family of seven secreted and calcium-dependent mannuronan C-5 epimerases (AlgE1–7). These epimerases are responsible for the epimerization of β-d-mannuronic acid (M) to α-l-guluronic acid (G) in alginate polymers. The epimerases display a modular structure composed of one or two catalytic A-modules and from one to seven R-modules having an activating effect on the A-module. In this study, we have determined the NMR structure of the three individual R-modules from AlgE6 (AR1R2R3) and the overall structure of both AlgE4 (AR) and AlgE6 using small angle x-ray scattering. Furthermore, the alginate binding ability of the R-modules of AlgE4 and AlgE6 has been studied with NMR and isothermal titration calorimetry. The AlgE6 R-modules fold into an elongated parallel β-roll with a shallow, positively charged groove across the module. Small angle x-ray scattering analyses of AlgE4 and AlgE6 show an overall elongated shape with some degree of flexibility between the modules for both enzymes. Titration of the R-modules with defined alginate oligomers shows strong interaction between AlgE4R and both oligo-M and MG, whereas no interaction was detected between these oligomers and the individual R-modules from AlgE6. A combination of all three R-modules from AlgE6 shows weak interaction with long M-oligomers. Exchanging the R-modules between AlgE4 and AlgE6 resulted in a novel epimerase called AlgE64 with increased G-block forming ability compared with AlgE6.