Discrete modeling of low-velocity penetration in sand
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionComputers and geotechnics. 2017, 86 21-32. 10.1016/j.compgeo.2016.12.021
In this paper, a discrete particle method was evaluated and used in numerical simulations of low-velocity penetration in sand. Hemispherical, blunt, and ogival-nosed impactors were tested at striking velocities below 5 m/s. The tests were conducted in a dropped-object-rig where the resisting force from the sand was measured continuously during the experiments. This provided a basis for comparison for the simulations. The shapes of the force-penetration depth curves were different for the various impactors, but the ultimate penetration depths were similar in all tests that were done with the same impact velocity. Three-dimensional discrete particle simulations were generally capable of describing the behavior of the sand. However, the peak resisting force was underestimated, which led to a slight overestimation of the ultimate penetration depth. This discrete particle method has previously been evaluated at high impact velocities. The results presented in this study supplement past results and show that the method can also be used to describe the overall response of sand subjected to low-velocity penetration.