Socio economic metabolism of Norwegain Kindergartens
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Using a socio economic metabolism (SEM) approach, the case of Norwegian kindergartens is studied in the wake of a contemporary challenge facing the system: shortage of qualified staff. Through the case study, the thesis aspires to demonstrate the utility of SEM based models in examining quality provision in the educational service, and for addressing the topic of resource requirements. A dynamic stock driven time cohort type model is constructed that studies the Norwegian kindergarten system in terms of (i) children as demander stock (ii) teachers and assistants as provider stocks (iii) built area as resource stock and their associated flows. The model developed for the thesis is a starting point for SEM studies to develop in the education sector. The model also demonstrates the alternative of modelling population as a dynamic time cohort type model providing an alternative to linear statistical models. The thesis shows that under a medium growth demographic scenario, between 2015 and 2040 the net stock of children increases by 9.6%. Subsequently, stock of teachers and assistants in the system increases by 10.5% and 9.9% respectively. In 2015, 9.9% teachers and 57.9% assistants were without relevant background. The thesis shows that at least 0.93% of unqualified teachers and 5.58% of unqualified assistants will be present in the system by 2040, assuming that the newly recruited staff in the future have formal qualifications. Through scenario analysis, interventions for achieving target of having all staff with formal background are studied.