Emergency Preparedness and Response in Aquaculture - Simulation of Vessel Response Time for Sheltered and Exposed Fish Farms
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- Institutt for marin teknikk 
This master s thesis investigates emergency preparedness and response in Norwegianaquaculture using discrete-event simulation. The aquaculture industry is growing in terms ofproduction, size, and technology, with the first exposed salmon farm expected in offshorewaters by the end of 2017. One should therefore prepare and plan for new challenges. Thisthesis considers emergency preparedness and response for current and future aquaculture. Theemergencies considered involve loss of biomass. The system limitations are set to when salmon is located in cages at sea. Relevant literatureconsidering emergency preparedness and response in aquaculture is evaluated. Emergencypreparedness and response is defined as planning for emergency, and the reactive actionsperformed after emergency. To gain insight, relevant literature from other segments is alsoassessed. A discrete-event simulation model is developed in SimEvents, to serve as a tool in the analysis.The model is developed as a generic basis to handle different emergency types. The modeledsystem is constructed to determine response time and time until the emergency is eliminated,based on various input data. The correlation between input data and calculations with the systemis illustrated. The input data is mostly based on research, thereby causing variations in accuracy.The simulation model is used to evaluate emergency escape and emergency slaughter. A case study with three cases is carried out to show the application and diversity of thesimulation model. All three cases contain several scenarios with changing input data. The twofirst cases considers response time for wellboats and light diving vessels upon first arrival atthe emergency site. With varying probability and distribution input, simulations are performedfor one sheltered fish farm and one exposed fish farm. Further, the case study considers differentfleet compositions to empty the two fish farms, with varying stock sizes. Each simulation provides different output due to stochastic variables, such as wave height andmobilization time. The results show that it is possible to obtain the same response times for theexposed fish farm by increasing the availability of response vessels. Further, the case studyshows that a significantly larger capacity is needed for emergency slaughter in exposed areas.Lastly, the case study shows that poor utilization decreases performance offshore when onelarge vessel is used, instead of several smaller vessels. The thesis concludes that increased focus on preparedness and response in the growingaquaculture industry is needed. Both to improve procedures and planning, to prevent loss ofbiomass in emergency. The case study concludes that it is highly possible to achieve asatisfactory level of preparedness and response for exposed fish farming, but standby vesselsmay be necessary. Furthermore, increased incentives are suggested to improve current planningand communication procedures, level of standardization, as well as ensuring capacities beforeemergency occurs.