Determination of nitrated and oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in arctic air by GC/NICI-MS
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- Institutt for kjemi 
Nitrated and oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro- and oxy-PAHs) are pollutants that enter the atmosphere from incomplete combustions and from degradation of regular PAHs. Nowadays, there are growing interests of atmospheric concentrations of nitro- and oxy-PAHs because of their high potential mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. In this study, a method has been tested for determination of 21 nitro-PAHs and 11 oxy-PAHs in particulate and gaseous phase of air samples from Longyearbyen, Svalbard, Norway. The samples were collected by high volume air sampling during February and March 2017. The sample work up procedure involved a Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) approach for extraction of particulate phase compounds, while the compounds in gaseous phase were extracted by the more traditional Soxhlet extraction. Analyses were carried out by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with negative ion chemical ionization (GC/NICI-MS). The analytical method was suitable for detection and quantification of nitro- and oxy-PAHs of low molecular weight. However, further method optimization is necessary in order to identify and quantify compounds of higher molecular weight, as the sensitivity decreased with increasing retention time. The total concentration of nitro- and oxy-PAHs in ambient air of Longyearbyen varied from 68.3 to 611.4 pg/m3, which is far below concentrations reported in literature from other sites. Analytes were mainly detected in particulate phase, except 1- and 2-nitronaphthalene. 9-Fluorenone was the most abundant compound, which correlates with research from other sites. In aspect of different weather conditions, the findings of this study indicates that both emissions from the coal power plant and emissions from traffic are important sources of atmospheric nitro- and oxy-PAHs in Longyearbyen.