NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF SUBMERGED AND PRESSURISED X65 STEEL PIPES
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While in service, pipelines may from time to time be exposed to impact loads from anchors or trawl gear. A lot of parameters influence the behaviour of the pipeline during impact, e.g. the diameter and thickness of the pipeline, the impactor's mass and velocity, and of course the material used. Also potentially influencing the deformation pattern is the presence of surrounding water, which can be a difficult parameter to include experimentally. The pressurised contents of the pipeline can also be an influencing factor. To gain some insight into how the water and possible pressure inside the pipeline affect the global impact behaviour, numerical investigations have been carried out using FSI- techniques available in the explicit finite element code Europlexus. One case was set up for validation against available experimental data, and additional cases examined numerically the effect of including pressure and/or surrounding water. The simulations generally captured the deformation and load levels from the experiments well, and may be assumed to represent the events with reasonable accuracy. Adding internal pressure generally led to a higher peak load, and created a more localised deformation. Submerging the pipe in water seemed to be of minor importance with respect to global and local deformation, but this depended heavily on the FSI conditions. Other parameters than the surrounding water, which for design purposes may be omitted, appear to be more significant to the global and local response.