Growth in international spillovers of energy and relation to development
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The production of goods and services demands direct and indirect use of energy. In this thesis, the production based and the consumption based use of energy is studied. Using the Multi Regional Input Output (MRIO) methodology the amount of direct and indirect use of energy related with products traded internationally is determined. The energy intensities from both consumption and production perspective are used to determine the relationship between the energy carriers use and national economic growth. Furthermore, the accounts are disaggregated to individual regions aiming at understanding of the energy transfer patterns including the share of domestic inputs, exports and imports along with their relation to the regions. In the analysis are 49 countries and regions, 200 industrial sectors and 7 final demand categories are considered during the period from 1995 till 2012. The result analysis is focused on the natural inputs extraction, energy carriers use and emissions relevant to energy use. The production and consumption accounting, as well as the single country accounting showed a certain decline in the amounts of energy embodied in the foreign exchange of products within the developed countries. In contrast, the figures for the developing countries had an increasing tendency, but surprisingly higher shares of renewable energy within the national energy mix. By comparing the annual amounts of energy carriers use with the national GDP of the OECD and Non OECD countries it is estimated that the level of decoupling of the energy system from economic development is greater within the developed countries than in the developing. On the other hand, contrasting the export and import rates with the national GDP revealed an existence of an annual drop, that means less energy is used for production of internationally traded goods and services.