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dc.contributor.authorSchei, Kasper
dc.contributor.authorAvershina, Ekaterina
dc.contributor.authorØien, Torbjørn
dc.contributor.authorRudi, Knut
dc.contributor.authorFollestad, Turid
dc.contributor.authorSalamati, Saideh
dc.contributor.authorØdegård, Rønnaug
dc.description.abstractBackground The fungi in the gastrointestinal tract, the gut mycobiota, are now recognised as a significant part of the gut microbiota, and they may be important to human health. In contrast to the adult gut mycobiota, the establishment of the early gut mycobiota has never been described, and there is little knowledge about the fungal transfer from mother to offspring. Methods In a prospective cohort, we followed 298 pairs of healthy mothers and offspring from 36 weeks of gestation until 2 years of age (1516 samples) and explored the gut mycobiota in maternal and offspring samples. Half of the pregnant mothers were randomised into drinking probiotic milk during and after pregnancy. The probiotic bacteria included Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb-12 and Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5. We quantified the fungal abundance of all the samples using qPCR of the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS)1 segment, and we sequenced the 18S rRNA gene ITS1 region of 90 high-quantity samples using the MiSeq platform (Illumina). Results The gut mycobiota was detected in most of the mothers and the majority of the offspring. The offspring showed increased odds of having detectable faecal fungal DNA if the mother had detectable fungal DNA as well (OR = 1.54, p = 0.04). The fungal alpha diversity in the offspring gut increased from its lowest at 10 days after birth, which was the earliest sampling point. The fungal diversity and fungal species showed a succession towards the maternal mycobiota as the child aged, with Debaryomyces hansenii being the most abundant species during breast-feeding and Saccharomyces cerevisiae as the most abundant after weaning. Probiotic consumption increased the gut mycobiota abundance in pregnant mothers (p = 0.01). Conclusion This study provides the first insight into the early fungal establishment and the succession of fungal species in the gut mycobiota. The results support the idea that the fungal host phenotype is transferred from mother to offspring.nb_NO
dc.publisherBioMed Centralnb_NO
dc.rightsNavngivelse 4.0 Internasjonal*
dc.titleEarly gut mycobiota and mother-offspring transfer 2017 Aug 24;5(1):107. doi: 10.1186/s40168-017-0319-x.nb_NO
dc.typeJournal articlenb_NO
dc.typePeer reviewednb_NO
dc.description.localcode© The Author(s). 2017. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.nb_NO
cristin.unitnameInstitutt for laboratoriemedisin, barne- og kvinnesykdommer
cristin.unitnameInstitutt for samfunnsmedisin
cristin.unitnameInstitutt for matematiske fag

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