Integration of PEV and PV in Norway Using Multi-Period ACOPF — Case Study
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Integration of Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs) and renewables poses substantial challenges in electricity distribution networks. This paper investigates the impact of large-scale PEV penetration in distribution networks, when also considering the integration of other renewable energy resources, e.g., wind, hydropower and Photovoltaics (PVs). As such, analysis on an existing low voltage local power system is conducted through simulations. We propose an AC Optimal Power Flow (ACOPF) algorithm over a time horizon of several successive hours. The resulting optimisation framework considers the control of voltage fluctuations within safe bounds, and controlled charging of PEVs, taking into account the total energy consumption of users and the forecast generation of renewables. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm saves the total cost when compared to an uncontrolled (`dumb') charging scenario.