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dc.contributor.authorBakken, Tor Haakon
dc.contributor.authorKillingtveit, Ånund
dc.contributor.authorAlfredsen, Knut
dc.description.abstractThis paper reviews published estimates of water consumption from hydropower production and the methodologies applied. Published values range from negative to more than 115 000 m3 MWh−1. Most gross water consumption rates are in the range 5.4–234 m3 MWh−1, while most net values are in the range 0.2–140 m3 MWh−1. Net values are often less than 40% of the gross values, sometimes only 1% of the gross water consumption estimates. The extremely wide range in estimates is explained by an inconsistent methodology and the very site-specific nature of hydropower projects. Scientific challenges, such as allocation from multipurpose reservoirs, and spatial assignments in river basins with several hydropower plants, affect the results dramatically and remain unresolved. As such, it is difficult to propose “typical values” for water consumption from hydropower production. This paper points out directions of research in order to prepare a consistent and improved methodology for the calculation of water consumption from hydropower projects. This should take into account the role of reservoirs in the provision of a large range of water services, as well as providing regulated power to the energy system.nb_NO
dc.rightsNavngivelse 4.0 Internasjonal*
dc.titleThe Water Footprint of Hydropower Production—State of the Art and Methodological Challengesnb_NO
dc.typeJournal articlenb_NO
dc.typePeer reviewednb_NO
dc.source.journalGlobal Challengesnb_NO
dc.relation.projectNorges forskningsråd: 215934nb_NO
dc.description.localcode© 2017 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.nb_NO
cristin.unitnameInstitutt for vann- og miljøteknikk

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