Mixed Migrations to the Gulf: An Empirical Analysis of Migrations from Unstable and Refugee-producing Countries to the GCC, 1960–2015
Journal article, Peer reviewed
MetadataShow full item record
The wealthy, oil-rich Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries are among the largest destinations for temporary labour migrants in the world. However, these states have not signed the 1951 Refugee Convention and an asylum system is virtually non-existent in the GCC. Yet, it is relevant to ask whether certain segments of the migrant stock in the GCC are the result of mixed migrations. Numerous studies indicate that the variety of migrant flows is often not captured by legal categories prescribed by authorities. Drawing from previous research, this article assesses the mixed migrations to the GCC. The empirical analysis herein relies on dyadic-migration estimates from the World Bank and the United Nation’s Population Division. Merging these two data sources, we contribute to the field by providing new insights and estimates of possible mixed migrations to the region. Our findings confirm the initial impression that the GCC has primarily been a receiver of labour migrants. However, it is maintained that the region also hosts fairly large numbers of migrants from refugee-producing and politically unstable countries and it is evident that migrations from refugee-producing countries to the GCC have grown in the last decades.