Hate speech, report 2. Research on hate and discrimination
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Hate speech has been a punishable offence in Norway since 1970. The prohibition against hate speech was incorporated into Norwegian legislation when Norway ratified the UN’s International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination in 1970. In recent years, hate speech has become all the more current as an important issue of democracy on the public and political agenda. This is related to two processes: Firstly, the growth of extremism and radicalisation subsequent to the terror attacks on 11 September 2001; secondly, the developments in digital communications and social media, allowing for freedom of expression and spreading hate in entirely new ways. The purpose of this report is to collate, summarise and evaluate the research that sheds light on the following subjects: 1) the relationship between hate speech and discrimination, bullying and violence, and 2) research into the consequences for individuals and groups exposed to the above, and society as a whole. The report is based on existing research literature relating to hate speech, hate crime, discrimination, bullying and violence.