Subcutaneous fat patterning in athletes: selection of appropriate sites and standardisation of a novel ultrasound measurement technique: ad hoc working group on body composition, health and performance, under the auspices of the IOC Medical Commission
Müller, Wolfram; Lohman, Timothy G.; Stewart, Arthur D.; Maughan, Ronald J.; Meyer, Nanna L.; Sardinha, Luis B.; Kirihennedige, Nuwanee; Reguant-Closa, Alba; Risoul-Salas, Vanessa; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn; Ahammer, Helmut; Anderhuber, Friedrich; Fürhapter-Rieger, Alfred; Kainz, Philipp; Materna, Wilfried; Pilsl, Ulrike; Pirstinger, Wolfram; Ackland, Timothy R.
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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- Artikler / Articles 
Original versionBritish Journal of Sports Medicine. 2016, 50, 45-54. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2015-095641 10.1136/bjsports-2015-095641
Background. Precise and accurate field methods for body composition analyses in athletes are needed urgently. Aim: Standardisation of a novel ultrasound (US) technique for accurate and reliable measurement of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). Methods: Three observers captured US images of uncompressed SAT in 12 athletes and applied a semiautomatic evaluation algorithm for multiple SAT measurements. Results: Eight new sites are recommended: upper abdomen, lower abdomen, erector spinae, distal triceps, brachioradialis, lateral thigh, front thigh, medial calf. Obtainable accuracy was 0.2 mm (18 MHz probe; speed of sound: 1450 m/s). Reliability of SAT thickness sums (N=36): R2=0.998, SEE=0.55 mm, ICC (95% CI) 0.998 (0.994 to 0.999); observer differences from their mean: 95% of the SAT thickness sums were within ±1 mm (sums of SAT thicknesses ranged from 10 to 50 mm). Embedded fibrous tissues were also measured. Conclusions: A minimum of eight sites is suggested to accommodate inter-individual differences in SAT patterning. All sites overlie muscle with a clearly visible fascia, which eases the acquisition of clear images and the marking of these sites takes only a few minutes. This US method reaches the fundamental accuracy and precision limits for SAT measurements given by tissue plasticity and furrowed borders, provided the measurers are trained appropriately.