Wind Effects on a Sports Arena
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Wind effects on the Maier sports arena have been investigated with three different experiment types. The experiments were performed with open land and nearby structures , with south, southwest and west wind direction. Due to symmetry, the open land experiments are valid for north, northwest, northeast, east and southeast. A Reynolds number independent atmospheric velocity profile simulation was generated in the wind tunnel. Reynolds number independent mean pressure coefficient distribution was determined for the arena. The results obtained for the windward wall indicate a maximum positive pressure coefficient of 0.16 and maximum negative pressure coefficient of 0.28. At the roof, a maximum negative pressure coefficient of 0.33 was found. Flow visualization was performed to observe wind directions and identify flow behavior. Recirculation was observed on the ground, under the roof. Separation at the leading edges of the roof was demonstrated due to the lack of powder removal. Worst case for powder accumulation was found to be from southwest (and due to symmetry, southeast, northwest and northeast). Reattachment occurred downstream, leading to removal of powder, thus visualizing where high wind speeds will be occurring for the tested wind directions. Meteorological data indicated most frequently wind from south and southwest. The wind speed of this area was found to rarely exceed wind comfort criteria. The literature review confirms and sheds further light onto the results. Roof failure is the most common cause for structural damages, and is mainly caused by failures at the windward edges during peak loads.