Study of Viscosity and Friction Factor of Nano Drilling Fluids along with Torque and Drag Reduction
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Energy industries have been taking advantages from the recent developments of nanotechnology. Several revolutionary changes can be made in drilling industry with the help of nanotechnology. It has a capability to produce such nanomaterials that can bring benefit to the industry in various manners such as improving the quality of mud cake, decreasing the frictional resistance in the well, minimizing the risk of pipe sticking, establishing borehole stability, preventing reservoir from formation damage, and augmenting the recovery of oil and gas. In the field of drilling fluids, researchers have tested the application of nanoparticles and have concluded with very promising results in terms of reduction in torque and drag, stabilizing the well bore, controlling fluid loss and improving hole cleaning efficiency. Use of the nanoparticles in reducing friction and improving lubrication effect has already been recognized in different industries. Drilling industry has moved towards exploiting reservoir in more economical ways such as drilling an extended reach well. These wells are quite challenging when it comes to solving down hole drilling problems such as high torque and drag. Lubrication efficiency of drilling fluids can play a decisive role in solving torque and drag problem. Although oil based drilling fluid offers reduced friction factor in the wellbore, environmental concerns and high expenditures can limit its usage. An alternate solution is to make the most of better lubrication efficiency of the nanoparticles by adding them in drilling fluid particularly to water base drilling fluids. This addition also has its impact on the rheological properties of drilling fluid which can affect its other function. By keeping this agenda in mind, different nanoparticles were added to drilling fluids at different concentrations and the impact on friction factor and viscosity was studied through tribometer and rheometer respectively. Graphene, carbon nanotubes, silica, alumina, cobalt and nickel nanoparticles were selected as potential particles and their effects were studied in three different base fluids. Temperature influence on tribology and rheology were also made part of the study. The reliability of test results was established by using Modular Compact Rheometer (MCR) for rheological measurements and Pin-on-Disc Tribometer for friction factor measurements. In addition to this, the impact of nanoparticles’ addition on density and pH of drilling fluid was also evaluated and the results were used to ponder on the relationship between different properties of drilling fluid. Evaluation of viscosity and friction factor led to selection of the best nano drilling fluids which were further used in case study to develop temperature, viscosity, friction factor and torque and drag profile using software technology. The comparison of results between conventional drilling fluid and nano drilling fluids proves that nano drilling fluid can deliver better performance in terms of better bit cooling, enhanced viscous behavior, low friction factors, and reduced torque and drag.
Master's thesis in Petroleum engineering