Sedentary behavior, overweight and obesity: a systematic literature review on direction of causality
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Background: Sedentary behavior has emerged as a new field of science, whereas it has been associated with several health problems such as obesity, independent of level of physical activity. However, it is unclear whether sedentary behavior is a cause or a result of overweight or obesity, or vice versa. To date, there is no review of prospective studies that systematically examine this relationship Objective: To provide a systematic literature review of the existing literature of prospective populations-based studies investigating the bidirectional relationship between sedentary behavior and overweight and obesity among non-patient children to middle-aged adults, and to consider the directions of this causality Method: This systematic literature review was conducted according to the PRISMA guideline, and searches were performed in four different databases; PsycINFO, EMBASE, PubMED and Web of Science, with search terms covering sedentary behavior and overweight and obesity. Results: Out of 23,452 articles, 161 articles were assessed for eligibility, and 10 studies were included in the final sample. Most of the studies included children ≤11 years old at baseline (n=4) or adults (n=4). Six studies use self-reported sedentary behavior, while the remaining four studies used objective measurements. Whether baseline weight was associated with change in sedentary behavior over time, four studies found no association, while one study found an unfavorable association in second half of the study, and five studies found an adverse association. Whether baseline sedentary behavior was associated with weight gain over time, seven studies found no association, while one study found mixed associations (between various exposure- and outcome variables), and two studies found an adverse association. Conclusion: Current evidence suggests that baseline weight predicts later sedentary behavior, and that the evidence regarding a reverse- or bidirectional relationship to date is not of sufficient quality to determined such relationship. Future well-conducted prospective studies are therefore warranted to increase knowledge in this field as well as to enhance heath-promoting strategies.
Masteroppgave - Norges idrettshøgskole, 2016