Preparedness and responses to the 2015 earthquake disaster in Nepal : remittances and differential vulnerability by Caste system
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This study examined the accessibility of remittances and their effect during a disaster in Thumpakhar VDC. It employed mixed method of data collection to examine the inequalities in a society. The inequality of wealth and savings at household level was found highly shaped by Caste system which privileges high caste and disadvantages low caste in migration opportunities. The result showed that poor and low Caste people are least included in the migration process which revealed many socio-economic barriers they encounter in choosing migration as a livelihood strategy. Further, the role of remittance in disaster preparedness and post-disaster response was empirically tested in the context of various amount of remittance from different destinations. Most interestingly, the selection of these destinations domestically, in the Middle East, and in Western countries was found to be dependent on Caste they belong to. These selections impacted the remittance outcome, and correspondingly the resilience during aftermath of disaster. This study found that low caste people besides being socially rejected in normal times become most vulnerable during the natural disasters due to poor social network and low access to remittance. Therefore, this thesis suggests that low caste people need special programs to help reinvent themselves as a capable workforce to be included in the migration process.