Master s Thesis Effect of Brine Concentration on Flow Properties in Two Types of Carbonate Rocks Ekofisk Chalk and Iranian Limestone : Study of Chemical Effect of Brine Composition on Flow Properties on Carbonate Rocks
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SummaryThe displacement of oil from reservoir rock pore spaces is a function of many interacting variables, amongst which the reservoir wetting state has been shown to be one of the important affected by the rock lithology, oil chemistry and brine salinity. A finding from previous research says that the injection brine into oil saturated core plug increased oil recovery. Based on this the objective of this master thesis is to investigate the effect of brine concentration on flow properties in two types of carbonate rocks for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) through imbibition and water flooding processes.The methodology used to evaluate the effect of brine concentration (BC) and chemical composition (CC) for oil recovery consisted on two stages. The first stage covers the literature review regarding the effect of brine concentration and chemical composition, including carbonates (chalk and limestone) characteristics. The second stage is related to the laboratory experiment which was performed using n-Decane oil, six (6) brines with different concentrations and chemical composition and the six (6) core plugs where four (4) chalks from Ekofisk (Norway) and the other two (2) limestones from Iranian field. The experiment was carried out in the laboratory of Institute of Petroleum and Technology (IPT), the materials, chemicals products, apparatus and equipments, methodology and procedures were provided by the IPT laboratory.To carry out the laboratory experiments, initially the two cores from Iranian were cleaned before being used. Different properties of brines, cores and oil were measured using different methods and procedures; and results were computed. Next, each core was saturated with one type of brine and after that flooded by n-Decane oil for establishment of initial water saturation and determination of volume of oil produced by drainage process at room temperature conditions at one bar. After that, all cores were aging about 15 days at room temperature condition. Finally, each core was flooded using brine by imbibition process at room temperature conditions.Results achieved were computed and discussed based on the literature review and compared with A salinity (AS) Ekofisk core reference case and similar studies. From this study was observed that the matrix block has a high porosity. The average porosity was about 40.24% of the volumes of large pores. The average absolute permeability was about 3.73 mD which is low because the microporous dominate the pore network. The average brine density (ρ) was about1.026 g/cm3 and pH was about 7.25. The initial water saturation varies between 14.58 to 28.50% and residual oil saturation among 22.49 to 62%. The sleeve pressure in the cylinder was kept from 15 to 28 bar. During waterfloodig was observed that the breakthrough pressure drop and time to increases when the oil recovery increase.The highest original oil in place (OOIP) was achieved in the low salinity (LS) core which was about 68.46% and the lowest was recorded in the C salinity (CS) core which was around 26.71%. The reason of the high and the low recovery is related with the effect of brine concentration and chemical composition of Sodium, Calcium, Magnesium and Sulphate, added in the solution. The main driving mechanism for low salinity waterflooding is believed to be multi component ionic exchange made possible by the expansion of electrical double layer. The permeability and porosity of the cores can be pointed as other factor. In general, it was showen that there is an increase in oil recovery as the salinity decreases.