Cytosolic phospholipase A2 regulates TNF-induced production of joint destructive effectors in synoviocytes
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionPLoS ONE 2013, 8(12) 10.1371/journal.pone.0083555
Introduction: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory disease of the joint characterized by chronic synovitis causing pain, swelling and loss of function due to destruction of cartilage and bone. The complex series of pathological events occurring in RA is largely regulated via excessive production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, the most prominent being tumor necrosis factor (TNF). The objective of this work was to elucidate possible involvement of group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2α) in TNF-induced regulation of synovitis and joint destructive effectors in RA, to evaluate the potential of cPLA2α as a future therapeutic target. Methods: The involvement of cPLA2α in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced intracellular signaling cascades in synoviocytes (synovial fibroblast-like cells) was analyzed by arachidonic acid (AA) release assay, synoviocyte enzyme activity assay, gene expression analysis by real-time PCR and ELISA immunoassay for the detection of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), interleukin 8 (IL8) and stromelysin-1 (MMP3), respectively. Results: Inhibitors of cPLA2α enzyme activity (AVX002, ATK) significantly reduced TNF-induced cellular release of AA, PGE2, IL8 and MMP3. This reduction was evident both at transcriptional, protein or metabolite levels. Interestingly, cPLA2α inhibition affected several key points of the arachidonyl cascade; AA-release, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) expression and PGE2 production. Furthermore, the results suggest that cPLA2α is subject to transcriptional auto-regulation as inhibition of cPLA2α resulted in reduced PLA2G4A gene expression in TNF-stimulated synoviocytes. Conclusions: cPLA2α appears to be an important regulator of central effectors of inflammation and joint destruction, namely MMP3, IL8, COX2, and PGE2. Decreased transcription of the PLA2G4A and COX2 genes in response to cPLA2α enzyme inhibition further suggest a self-reinforcing effect of cPLA2α inhibition in response to TNF. Collectively, these results support that cPLA2α is an attractive therapeutic target candidate as its inhibition reduces the production of multiple key pro-inflammatory factors involved in RA pathogenesis.