Prevalence and risk factors for developing posttraumatic stress disorder in a general intensive care population - a literature review
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Aim: 1) To investigate prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and symptoms of posttraumatic stress (PTSS) in a general intensive care patient population, and risk factors for post ICU-PTSD/PTSS. 2) To investigate how instruments and loss to follow-up could influence the prevalence of PTSD/PTSS in this patient population. Background: Studies have found a wide variance of PTSD/PTSS in this patient population. A number of risk factors were associated with developing post-ICU PTSD/PTSS, but the literature was inconclusive when it came to risk factors for developing this condition. Design: Literature review Results: Prevalence of PTSD/PTSS was over all high and consistent with the literature. Demographic variables, a prior psychiatric history, memories and treatment in the ICU were all factors linked to developing these conditions. The use of diagnostic instruments resulted in the identification of fewer cases. A high loss to follow-up rate could influence the prevalence of PTSD/PTSS. Conclusion: PTSS was found to be common in general ICU-survivors. Due to methodological limitations, exact prevalence of post-ICU PTSD/PTSS could not be determined. Risk factors for developing post-ICU PTSD/PTSS were multifactorial and future studies on PTSD/PTSS should be more methodological rigorous, use larger samples and employ diagnostic as opposed to screening instruments.