On the stability of psychological hardiness: a three-year longitudinal study
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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- Artikler / Articles 
Original versionMilitary Psychology. 2015, 27, 155-168.
More than 30 years of research has established psychological hardiness as an important individual resiliency resource. One important question still remaining is whether psychological hardiness can be trained. The present study explored this question longitudinally within the context of a 3-year military academy training program. Cadets from 3 different Norwegian military academies (N = 293) completed hardiness questionnaires during the first week of their training, and then again at the end of each year, resulting in a total of 4 waves of data. Using hierarchical linear modeling, no statistically significant effect of time on hardiness scores was found. The nonsignificant growth parameter was examined further using Bayesian statistics as an indicator of the relative evidence for the null hypothesis of no change over time versus the alternative hypothesis of change. The resulting Bayes factor provided substantial support in our data for the null hypothesis of no hardiness development during the 3-year officer training programs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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