Identification of blue green structures and perceived values in public urban green spaces : a comparative case study of a natural and constructed green space in Oslo
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- Institutt for geografi 
Population growth is increasing and further increase will occur in cities. This densification will effect and reduce urban green ecosystems. Urban ecosystems contribute to the quality of life of urban dwellers and the cultural ecosystem services (CES) provided are the focus of the present thesis. The non-existence of a common framework for assessing CES and the insufficient attention towards CES is leading to the use of two recently developed tools within this thesis: the Blue Green Factor, developed by Oslo and Bærum municipality, and the Structural Diversity Tool, developed by Voigt et al. (2014). The aim of this thesis is to compare a park and a natural green space in Oslo using those tools and to assess the perceived values of the green spaces. Further the connection of those values, on the basis of the CES concept, to the blue green structures assessed, is discussed. The theoretical basis of the research relies on the concepts of cultural ecosystem services, the aesthetics of the pleasant and the experience of nature. Results show an immense difference of the blue green factor scores. The natural green space achieves a score that is five times higher than the score of the park. The structural diversity tool revealed similar result, the natural space scores however slightly higher. The observations and the interviews in the natural green space demonstrate that the green space is perceived as a restorative environment, but only during the day. The social environment in the evening was perceived as not pleasant and no activities were carried out at this time. The interviews demonstrated that accessibility, safety, tidiness and maintenance were of importance whilst deciding about a visit of the green space, nevertheless the aspects of compatibility, nature, the feeling of being away, extent of the space and the fascination elements were decisive for a visit. The observations within the park however revealed a picture of little use and no respondents were willing to participate in the interview study. The research identified five CES subservices in the natural green space: recreational services (stress relief), social interactions, educational services, the feeling of being away and aesthetical services. Some of these services can be connected to the provision of basic blue green settings, however abiotic side conditions have to be taken into consideration. Key words: Urban green space, Blue green factor (BGF); Structural Diversity Tool, Cultural ecosystem services, Restorative environment, Oslo, Norway
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