Un-ending conflict on Pashtun borderland : implications for Pashtun social organisation and state-society relationship in FATA, Pakistan
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The US attack on Afghanistan has changed the landscape of federally administered tribal areas of Pakistan. A large number of foreign militant’s snuck into the tribal areas of Pakistan where they found safe heavens among the local population. The deployment of Pakistan security forces escalated in acute conflict in the region. The conflict has reconfigured the whole fabrication of social life of its inhabitants. The aim of this research study is to investigate the various factors which contributed to the violent conflict in the region and its impacts on socio-cultural aspects of the region. The research evaluate how the violent conflict in the region changed the functioning of socio-cultural system of Pashtunwali (a code of conduct), such as Jirga (Council of elders), hospitality and Hujra (place of guest). These socio-cultural systems have, in the past, played crucial roles in sustaining peace and harmony. In addition, this study further addresses experiences the local population has had with conflict in the area and conflict’s effects on state-society relationship in FATA, Pakistan. Field data was gathered in two villages of Mir Ali Tehsil of North Waziristan Agency (FATA) through semi-structured interviews, Participant observer status and focus group discussion with local and key respondents covering the implications of militancy on Pashtun social Organization and local communities’ perceptions concerning the conflict in the region.