Offshore Field Development in Cold Climate: with Emphasis on Terminals
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It is estimated that 25% of the remaining oil and gas reserves worldwide are held in Arctic regions. The combined effects of a global resource depletion, climate change and technological progress, mean that this natural resource area is now increasingly interesting and commercially attractive. However, numerous challenges are present when it comes to hydrocarbon production in cold climate, not only related to suitable technology, but also to social and environmental issues. Any hydrocarbon development in the Arctic represents, thus, a balance between opportunity and risk. This thesis analyzes a broad range of aspects influencing offshore hydrocarbon field development scenarios in cold climate, emphasizing on terminals as a major building block necessary in the development of a petroleum field.Feasible, safe and cost effective terminal concepts for cold climate areas, face challenges that need specific assessment of technical solutions and operational aspects. Many of these challenges can be managed, though at additional cost, through the application of customised solutions. After having presented and gained the necessary knowledge and insight in the main issues influencing a cold climate terminal, an assessment of different development schemes is carried out, using for this purpose three case studies located in the Barents Sea: Johan Castberg, Snøhvit and Goliat fields.In this context, a quantitative assessment of breakwater stability in cold climate environments has been an important part of the discussions.Finally, given the complex and often unique risk challenges present in cold climate regions, risk assessment arise as an important part of the decision making process, and thus, has been used to understand the sensitivity of different development schemes.The Master thesis, therefore, provides an insight in the following aspects:- Aspects influencing offshore hydrocarbon field development scenarios in cold climate.- Technical issues influencing a cold climate terminal, with a thorough quantitative discussion of breakwater stability and design in cold climate.- Operational issues influencing a cold climate terminal.- Assessment of the sensitivity of different schemes through case studies analysis.- Risk assessment for identification and evaluation of the main risks involved, applied to the case studies.