Enterprise Modelling supported by Manufacturing Systems Theory
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There exist today a large number of enterprise models or enterprise modelling approaches. In a study of standards and project developed models there are two approaches: CIMOSA “The Open Systems Architecture for CIM” and GERAM, “Generalised Enterprise Reference Architecture”, which show a system orientation that can be further followed as interesting research topics for a system theory oriented approach for enterprise models. In the selection of system theories, manufacturing system theory is interesting and promising to adapt or extend to further synthesising and usage of enterprise models. Today the design and creation of an enterprise model are based on a given architecture and available even though this is not always practical. When it comes to execution and operational phases of the model, the possibilities are more limited. Manufacturing system theory [Bjørke 1995] was developed to describe system-oriented approaches to manufacturing systems including product configuration and design processes. This includes a large number of disciplines like mechanics, cybernetics, material science etc. on the physical side and planning activities, economical aspects and optimisation processes on the human side. The theory is based on geometry as the foundation and the methods within the theory are related to concepts of connections. The analysis of the manufacturing systems is the prime area for the usage of this theory and is important in order to bring a science base into manufacturing. But the theory can be used in a more generic way. The theory of logic [Møller 1995] relates also to the concept of connections, being expressed as logic arguments. The theory is generic and has been applied to different model approaches e.g. product configuration, scheduling and planning, railway logic control. This theory of logic is also fully applicable in manufacturing system theory. The theory of logic and the manufacturing systems theory are both based on geometry or more precisely expressed the geometric funded theory of connections. The main requirement for the enterprise model architecture to be used together with the theory of logic is that it can be divided into a 3D orthogonal space with unique defined axis. In this work a 3D space based upon product, process and organisational axis is preferred, also called the PPO-model. In this study combination of the enterprise modelling architecture, GERAM ISO 15704, and the theory of logic are used to show how systems theory can be used in control and management of operational phases of enterprise models. The usage of logic theory within enterprise modelling gives solutions on management and control issues in an operational phase of the product model. If is important to emphasis that this is not an approach for populating or transfer of operative data into a model. The integration of theses theories are illustrated through examples that show modelled entities of an enterprise in operation within areas of: - Execution of operative manufacturing unit - Organisational and strategic issues - Enterprise planning with aspects of uncertainty An own PPO model for feature based integration within product design and process planning has been developed to show that alternative more simple and detailed architectures also can be used.