Eco-efficiency and Performance Strategies in Construction and Demolition Waste Recycling Systems
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This thesis studies the Danish and Norwegian recycling systems for construction and demolition (C&D) waste. The architectural, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry is a major contributor to societies waste production; accounting for approximately 40% of the waste production. It is therefore important to manage the C&D waste effectively to move society towards sustainability. This study applies the Industrial Ecology paradigm. This involved multidisciplinary approach, spanning the fields of Industrial Ecology, Systems Engineering and Organizational and Social Studies. The scope of this thesis is threefold. The first scope is to get a better understanding of the processes that are taking place within the socio-technical sphere of a recycling system. Second, what is the nature of the C&D waste and what are the environmental impacts from the various waste fractions. Third, how can this information be used to improve recycling systems for C&D waste. The study show that the suggestions in the National Action Plan and the corresponding policies are eco-effective, but that the environmental impact is very transport dependent. The study also shows that there is a great need to focus on future waste composition in the design of recycling systems for C&D waste. However, such waste projections are difficult to perform due to poor data availability. There is a need for making more qualified decisions on environmental issues, with regard to long term management of such recycling systems. Long term models combined with environmental and economic information can make a powerful tool for such analysis.