Metamorphic refinement of quartz under influence of fluids during exhumation with reference to the metamorphic/metasomatic evolution observed in amphibolites: a detailed field, microtectonic and geochemical study from the Bamble sector, South Norway
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Outline of the thesis This thesis is comprises three papers that are intended for journal publication. The version provided in the thesis is a bit longer than they will be at final publication. However it was the desire to include some additional documentation that may be omitted in the final versions. Each paper in the manuscript is written as an independent paper. Because all the papers are strongly tied together there is significant repetition partly because the documentation and interpretation of the results in on paper depends on the results documented in another paper. The essence of the three papers are summarised below: Paper 1: Sørensen, B.E. and Larsen R.B. 2007. “Fluid induced multistage recrystallisation microstructures in Quartzites and Quartz veins from the Bamble shear zone complex” Paper 1 deduces basic principles of infiltration, physiochemical alteration processes and deformation mechanisms in quartzites and in quartz veins from the Froland area, the Bamble sector. SEM-CL is used to define generations of recrystallised quartz. A progressive quartz purification process ending with high purity quartz through recrystallisation is documented through LA-ICP-MS. The study demonstrates how fluids provokes recrystallisation and trace element mobilisation from the quartz lattice and at fluid-absent conditions, quartz is resistant to retrograde recrystallisation hence preserving its early high grade metamorphic trace element signature. Evidence of retrograde fluid flow is preserved in fluid channel textures intersecting quartz and documented by SEM-CL images as well as changes in the trace element distribution. Quartz recrystallisation is associated with metasomatic processes in the quartzites such as for example the replacement of ilmenite by rutile and replacement of biotite by muscovite. The strong focus of fluid flow along narrow pathways intersecting the quartzites generates mm-scale differences in the rheological properties of the quartz grains with increased ductility and recovery in recrystallised grains. Therefore, the study demonstrates a strong coupling between strain softening, fluid flow and mass transfer in shearzones in quartz rich rocks. Paper 2: Sørensen, B.E. and Larsen R.B. 2007. “The fluid evolution of the Froland area in the Bamble sector from peak P-T through cooling and uplift: implications for retrograde mineral paragenesis and PT evolution of the Bamble sector” Paper 2 comprises a detailed characterisation of the fluid evolution during cooling and uplift through fluid inclusion studies compared with thermodynamic modelling of calc-silicate volatile dependant mineral equilibria. Fluids are documented to be brines throughout the cooling and uplift path. The paper also includes a detailed discussion of the chemical properties of the aggressive brines and their implications for mineral equilibria during cooling and exhumation. The study also document which fluids that were in equilibrium with quartz recrystallisation and purification. The study focussed on fluids that could be related to the quartz SEM-CL textures documented in Paper 1. Had the main purpose of this thesis been to understand calc-silicate equilibria in the Bamble sector fluid inclusions in the calc-silicates would have been in the focus. Paper 3: Sørensen, B.E, Larsen R.B. and Austrheim, H. 2007. “Metasomatic evolution of the Froland amphibolites during cooling and uplift – textural observations and geochemical evolution of hydrous minerals” Paper 3 comprises a detailed study of alteration processes in amphibolites. The study focuses on the chemistry of amphiboles as a function P, T and the composition of the co-existing fluids. Amphibole and biotite undergo a co-genetic evolution both becoming more Mg-rich during cooling and exhumation. The chemical changes in biotite and amphibole reflects the interaction with the brines present throughout cooling and uplift. A relationship between element depletion in amphibolites and formation of Fe-Cu sulphides is observed. As earlier stated the papers are strongly tied together. In conjunction with each other they deduce the metamorphic and metasomatic evolution of the area and put the observed quartz recrystallisation and purification into a physiochemical framework. The locality numbering varies between the papers because samples from different localities are included in each paper, accordingly a locality termed”1” in one of the papers may have a different number in the next paper. This was done because the papers are supposed to be independent research papers and the numbering logically relate to the context of the single papers and not the thesis as a whole.
Består avSørensen, Bjørn Eske; Larsen, Rune B.. Fluid induced multistage recrystallisation microstructures in Quartzites and Quartz veins from the Bamble shear zone complex. .
Sørensen, Bjørn Eske; Larsen, Rune B.. The fluid evolution of the Froland area in the Bamble sector from peak P-T through cooling and uplift: implications for retrograde mineral paragenesis and PT evolution of the Bamble sector. .
Sørensen, Bjørn Eske; Larsen, Rune B.; Austrheim, Håkon. Metasomatic evolution of the Froland amphibolites during cooling and uplift – textural observations and geochemical evolution of hydrous minerals. .