Multihapten approach leading to a sensitive ELISA with broad cross-reactivity to microcystins and nodularin
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionSamdal, I.A., et al., 2014. Multihapten Approach Leading to a Sensitive ELISA with Broad Cross-Reactivity to Microcystins and Nodularin. Environmental Science & Technology 48(14) 8035-8043. 10.1021/es5012675
Microcystins (MCs) are a group of biotoxins (>150) produced by cyanoba cteria, with a worldwide distribution. MCs are hepatotoxic, and acute exposure causes severe liver damage in humans and animals. Rapid and cheap methods of analysis are therefore required to protect people and livestock, especially in developing countries. To include as many MCs as possible in a single analysis, we developed a new competitive ELISA. Ovine polyclonal antibodies were raised using an immunogen made by conjugating a mixture of microcystins to cationised bovine serum albumin, and the plate-coating antigen was prepared by conjugating [Asp 3 ]MC- RY to ovalbumin. This strategy was used also to minimize speci fi city for particular microcystin congeners. Cross-reactivity studies indicate that the ELISA has broad speci fi city to microcystins and also detects nodularin, providing a sensitive and rapid analytical method for screening large numbers of samples. The limit of quantitation for microcystins in drinking water is 0.04 μ g/L, well below the WHO ’ s maximum recommendation of 1 μ g/L. The ELISA can be used for quantifying total microcystins in various matrices, including drinking water, cyanobacterial cultures, extracts, and algal blooms, and may be useful in detecting metabolites and conjugates of MCs.